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a military expedition undertaken by European Christians during the 11th through 13th century to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims ​


the period of time that occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire when art, literature, and architecture no longer flourished

Dark Ages
a social order where the king owned all of the land and would lease out a part of the land to his subjects in exchange for their loyalty

feudal system

a document that limited the powers of the monarchy and protected the rights of the people

Magna Carta

He invented the printing press in the 1440s. ​

Johannes Gutenberg

The Norwegian navigator who discovered Newfoundland in 1000.

Leif Ericson
The Italian explorer who rediscovered the eastern shores of Canada in 1497.​

John Cabot

The Spanish explorer who conquered Puerto Rico in 1508-1509 and later discovered Florida in 1513. ​

Juan Ponce de Leon

The Florentine who was an artist, engineer, musician, and scientist. ​

Leonardo de Vinci

​The Italian explorer who received funding from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain in 1492 to take three ships across the Atlantic Ocean.

Christopher Columbus
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Social Studies:  The Dark and the Middle Ages - Flashcards