1.




2.










3.





4.





5.
Language Arts:  Conjunctions - Tutorial
      Tutorial               Lessons              Quiz
Some Helpful Tools
Coordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions: click here

Lessons: click here

Language Arts Homepage: click here
Subordinating Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions
A clause has a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: 

  • independent clause
  • dependent.clause

An independent clause has a subject and a verb.  It can stand alone.

A subordinate clause is also called a dependent clause.  It has a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand alone. 
Rules for Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect a noun to a noun, a phrase to a phrase, or an independent clause to an independent clause. 
Frank wanted both fame and fortune.

(creates balance and consistency)

Frank wanted both fame and he also wanted fortune

(does not create balance and consistency)



Darlene would spend the day either reading a book or painting a picture.

(creates balance and consistency)

Darlene would either spend the day reading a book or painting a picture.

(does not create balance and consistency)



Martin likes not only spinach but also broccoli

(creates balance and consistency)

Not only does Martin likes spinach but also likes broccoli

(does not create balance and consistency)


Now the subordinate clause becomes an independent clause. 
This section will cover the three types of conjunctions. 
Subordinating conjunctions are used to link a dependent clause to an independent clause. 

For a list of subordinating conjunctions, click here.
Coordinating conjunctions are words that are used to connect words or parts of sentences together. 

Below are the coordinating conjunctions and what they mean:
information is added

on the other hand

options are available

no options are available

the reason why, because

shows a result

in spite of the fact
Correlative conjunctions connect equal parts together in a sentence.

Below is a list of correlative conjunctions:
A comma is not needed when connecting a noun to a noun.  
These conjunction pairs work together as partners. 
and   

but   

or     

nor  

for    

so

yet
Sam and Fred are going camping this weekend. 

The plates nor the bowls were placed on the table. 
Sandy spends time reading a book or painting a picture.
A comma is not needed when connecting a phrase to a phrase. 
George wanted to buy a new car, but he did not have enough money. 

Tess could not go to the ball, for she had lost her shoe. 

The store was closed, so the customers had to wait outside. 

Vera studied very hard for the exam, yet she felt unprepared.
A comma is used to connect two independent clauses. 
Connect a noun to a noun
Connect a phrase to a phrase
Connect an independent clause to an independent clause
both-and

either-or

neither-nor

not only-but also

whether-or
Note: Correlative conjunctions should be evenly placed in a sentence to create balance and consistency.
Amy stayed home from school because she had the flu.

Amy stayed home from school
(This is an independent clause.)

because she had the flu
(This is a subordinate clause.)



In case you did not know, I sold the car last Friday. 

In case you did not know,
(This is a subordinate clause.)

I sold the car last Friday.
(This is an independent clause.)



While she waited for the beautician, Pam read a magazine. 

While she waited for the beautician,
(This is a subordinate clause.)

Pam read a magazine.
(This is an independent clause.)

Jan wanted to go to the park, but there was not enough time. 
Use a comma if a coordinating conjunction connects two complete sentences. 
No commas are needed with correlative conjunctions.  There are, however, some exceptions. A comma may be used to offset an interrupting phrase or to join two independent clauses:

If the subordinate clause appears at the beginning of the sentence, use a comma to separate it from the independent clause. 
While Dad washed the car, he listened to the radio.    
If the subordinate clause appears at the end of the sentence, no comma is needed to separate the independent clause from the subordinate clause. 
Dad listened to the radio while he washed the car.
While Dad washed the car,

Dad washed the car. 
If the subordinating conjunction is removed, the thought will be complete.
Both Geoff and Anna, his best friend from Australia, will be attending the new inventors seminar next Tuesday.

Not only did Rachel want to go mountain climbing, but she also wanted to go white water rafting.