The present participle ends in -ing
Language Arts:  Participles - Tutorial
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Function of a Past Participle
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About  Participial Phrases

Participial phrases are used as adjectives. They give more detail about the nouns they are modifying.

If the phrase appears at the beginning of the sentence, use a comma to separate the phrase from the remaining part of the sentence.

The past participle is a verb that can have either a regular -ed ending or an irregular ending. 

When the past participle modifies a noun or pronoun, it becomes a participial phrase that functions as an adjective instead of a verb.

This section will cover participles and how they are used. 

blown        frozen      sprung
Note: Past participles are not the same as verbs written in the past tense form. 

Even though some past participles do look like regular past tense verbs, they are different.

Past participles cannot be used by themselves, whereas past tense verbs
can. 
In order for these past participles to be used correctly, they must appear with the
helping verb form have

  past tense             past participle

      fell                             fallen
      froze                          frozen
The glass fell from the counter.       (correct)

The glass fallen from the counter.     (incorrect)


The lake froze because of the icy temperatures.    (correct)

The lake frozen because of the icy temperatures.   (incorrect)
The glass had fallen from the counter.

The lake had frozen because of the icy temperatures.   
These past participles can be used to modify the nouns in the sentences. 
fallen glass

frozen lake
These past participles can be used in phrases to describe the nouns.
Fallen from the counter, the glass shattered into tiny pieces.

Frozen because of the icy temperatures, the lake was difficult to cross. 
The words in boldface are now called past participial phrases

For more on irregular verbs, click here.
     cleaning       flying      sleeping    
These present participles cannot appear in sentences without helping verbs.  
The crew cleaning the basement. (incorrect)

The balloon flying over the trees. (incorrect)

The man sleeping on the bus.  (incorrect)
Cleaning the muddy carpet in the basement, the crew worked nonstop.

The children spotted the balloon flying over the trees

The man sleeping soundly on the bus missed his stop. 

The crew is cleaning the basement.  (correct)

The balloon is flying over the trees.  (correct)

The man is sleeping on the bus.  (correct)

In order for these present participles to be used correctly, they must appear
with the helping verbs: is, are, or am
cleaning crew

flying balloon

sleeping man
The following present participles can be used to create present particpial phrases.
If the phrase adds necessary information, no comma is needed.

Clucking and waddling, the chickens made their way into the barn.
If the phrase does not add necessary information, place a comma before and after the phrase.
Manda, bursting with anticipation, greeted the guests at the door. 
The papers lying on the desk are important.